About Maureen Kelleher Figueroa

I'm a writer and mom of a Latino toddler.

How to Break the “Blue-Collar” Ceiling for Latinos

A story in the Chicago Tribune this week recaps new research showing metro area Latinos have stayed trapped in low-skill, low-wage jobs in a handful of industries over the last decade, even though the overwhelming majority of them are American citizens. Lack of education appears to be the key factor holding them back.

A brief of the report is available here, in Latino Ed Beat’s research section.

DePaul University professor John Koval, who authored the report, told the Tribune, “These kids need to be educated and well-trained because the economy needs them so badly.”

His report notes that increasing Latinos’ access to early education and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) will be key steps. Working with parents and communities to change mindsets will be critical.

The Latino Policy Forum, a Chicago-based advocacy group, offers an example of how that change can happen. The forum recently announced the launch of a second year of its Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors) program, training that equips Latino parents of children under the age of five with the knowledge and confidence to support their children’s learning and advocate for them as they enter preschool and elementary school. Abriendo Puertas is being offered by 17 nonprofit agencies across metro Chicago and will reach over 500 parents by the end of 2012.

In Tulsa, Latino Baby Boom Spurs Dual-Language Preschool

I’ve seen a number of stories about changing demographics and the rising numbers of Latino babies in locales all over the United States. Often they are contrasted with declining birth rates for non-Hispanics. But a recent story in the Tulsa World went a constructive step further to show how the demographic change is affecting policy and practice among the city’s Head Start programs.

The story tells you that a nonprofit called Community Action Project, or CAP, runs Tulsa County’s Head Start program. What it doesn’t tell you–perhaps because Tulsans know it already–is that CAP is a national leader in early education. That status adds weight to their recent decision, noted in the story, to use dual-language English-Spanish instruction in all Tulsa County Head Start programs starting next fall. Over the past five years, Hispanic enrollment in the programs has risen from 30 to 40 percent of all students. Three years ago, CAP began issuing its Head Start materials in Spanish as well as English.

Though clearly the reporter’s goal in this story was to write about the changing demographics in Tulsa and across Oklahoma, I think it would have benefitted readers to have a little more explanation of what dual-language instruction will mean in Tulsa’s Head Start programs. Will there be designated times when children and teachers speak Spanish, then English? Will one teacher speak English and another–or an assistant?–speak Spanish with children? Methodology matters in making dual-language instruction successful. Being a geek for this sort of thing, I’d also really like to know how they are training teachers to do it and whether they’ve had trouble recruiting enough Spanish-speaking teachers.

In any event.  there’s room for a follow-up story next fall when the teachers start using both languages regularly with the students. Hope the editors remember!

What Third Grade Reading Says About High School Graduation

Here in Chicago last week, the Latino Policy Forum and Advance Illinois co-hosted a breakfast discussion with Donald Hernandez, a sociologist with Hunter College, City University of New York, about his recent research showing that children’s reading prowess in third grade strongly predicts whether or not they will graduate from high school. A small group of educators, policy analysts and foundation officers used the findings as a springboard to talk about what can be done in Illinois to increase the number of students reading proficiently by third grade, especially among Latinos and English-language learners.

Hernandez stated the main point of his research succinctly: “Lack of reading proficiency compounds the effect of poverty on graduation rates.” In other words, children who have spent even one year of their lives in poverty are less likely to graduate from high school than children who come from more affluent families. When children in poverty can’t read well by third grade, their chances of graduating from high school shrink even more.

Those gathered at the meeting discussed a number of strategies that could reduce the number of children in this kind of “double jeopardy.” A critical piece would be not only developing more and better early childhood programs–especially in the underserved Latino neighborhoods of Chicago and its suburbs–but also connecting those programs to K-3 in neighborhood public schools so that children’s early learning gains don’t fade out once they start elementary school. Illinois is working on changing its teacher licensing system to align better from pre-K through 3rd grade and also retooling principal preparation to ensure elementary school principals better understand how to work with early educators.

On a parallel track, the group discussed the importance of helping families engage in their children’s early learning.  Hernandez’s report recommends using “two-generation” strategies to educate parents and ensure families have access to health insurance so their children can get help with developmental delays as well as routine health conditions.

Some story ideas occurred to me as I listened to the discussion:

1. Spend two days with two early educators with similar credentials working with similar students but in different settings. For example,  watch an early educator working in an elementary school’s state pre-kindergarten program and compare her day–class size, curriculum and her pay–to that of an early educator working with four-year-olds in a private,  licensed daycare center who is likely making a lot less money. How similar are the experiences for the children? How do differences in pay and working conditions affect the early educators’ views of their jobs?

2. Talk with stay-at-home Latina moms to find out why their children are or are not in preschool. While there’s a common perception that Latino families want to keep their children at home for cultural reasons, Latino Policy Forum’s Sylvia Puente calls that a myth and cites research showing that most if not all the differential in Latino preschool enrollment can be explained by economics. Puente cites the popularity of half-day preschool run by Through A Child’s Eyes in the Chicago suburb of Cicero, Ill. as an example to break the stereotype.

3. Reporters can look at teacher licensing issues by talking with elementary school teachers and principals about current staffing practices, which sometimes call for upper elementary teachers (6-8) to come back down to K-3. Or the reverse: I can recall one occasion when a kindergarten teacher was reassigned to 8th grade math following a wholesale shakeup of the school’s faculty. What age groupings make the most sense to working teachers and principals, and are those groupings the ones favored by policymakers? Here in Illinois, the issue of licensing is becoming even more complicated with the recent state rule that preschool teachers working with large numbers of English-language learners must have a bilingual teaching credential.

Do Older Siblings Help Preschoolers Learn English?

Last week I received a press release announcing that two researchers from the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education had won a $40,000 grant from the Spencer Foundation to study language acquisition in Latino preschoolers. The study is already under way, and the researchers were willing to share some preliminary findings from their work via email.

The study is tracking more than 100 Latino families with young children in central Virginia. The researchers, Amanda Kibler and Natalia Palacios, are using observations, interviews and standard tests of early language development to assess the youngsters’ language progress in both English and Spanish. The Spencer grant will support more home observations plus at least one year of school observations once the children start kindergarten.

A key aspect of the home observations will focus on how young children with older siblings (school-age and using English) acquire and use language, Kibler said via email. Kibler says currently very little research exists to document how older siblings affect language acquisition and use among Latino children. I’m glad to see researchers tackling this questions. Just observationally, around my neighborhood it seems pretty clear to me that Latino children with school-age siblings who speak English acquire and use English more rapidly than those without,  but I’m not a researcher.

Another preliminary finding shows a link between children sleeping an extra hour at night and having bedtime stories read to them in Spanish by their mothers. So far, the same association is not apparent with English reading. Kibler says the finding suggests some Spanish-speaking recent immigrants are using night-time routines as an opportunity for structured reading but couldn’t say more.  Though I know correlation doesn’t equal causation, I’m tempted to stress Spanish language stories at bedtime (usually we read in both languages) and see if my son will sleep longer!

Building Bridges from Pre-K to Elementary in Chicago

Everyone wants the schools that serve disadvantaged students to improve their instruction, but actually making that happen is difficult. A new report from Chicago-based Business and Professional People for the Public Interest (BPI) details how a group of 11 low-income, predominantly Latino schools have started to create change. Notably, the schools have built bridges to their pre-K programs and started to explore new methods for helping English-language learners build their English and literacy skills.

BPI, a longtime partner with some Chicago schools which focuses on improvement from the inside, built relationships with six Latino-majority schools on Chicago’s Northwest Side. BPI brokered a connection with California-based Targeted Leadership Consulting, an education consulting firm with a track record of success in San Diego’s Chula Vista School District. TLC began work with Chula Vista in 2001, when the district’s Academic Performance Index was 653 on a 200-1000 scale, below the state’s benchmark of 800. By 2011, the district’s overall API had risen to 861 and ranks first in California for the academic performance of its English-language learners.

What did TLC bring to Chicago? A six-step framework for school improvement:

1. Build shared leadership across the school–and across K-8 and pre-K, a notoriously tough divide to bridge;

2. Focus everyone on one instructional area, like literacy, that will improve learning for all students;

3. Look at the data and use it to guide teacher training and improve instructional practice;

4. Select a handful of effective teaching strategies and build teachers’ expertise in them;

5. Partner with parents and community in the work;

6. Put money and other resources behind each step.

Repeat, repeat, repeat. Truth is, many school buildings never get past step one.

This report’s most useful section is the chapter on pre-K. Building bridges from K-8 down to pre-K is especially difficult. In most schools across the country, pre-K runs on a different day than the K-8 schools, making it tough to bring teachers together. Here in Chicago,  pre-K programs don’t have attendance boundaries but neighborhood schools do. When some pre-K children won’t be going to that particular elementary school for kindergarten, it conceivably reduces the school’s motivation to connect with that pre-K.

Bringing pre-K teachers to the table and choosing an instructional focus that applied from pre-K through 8th grade helped. Five of the 11 schools in BPI’s network included pre-K teachers on their instructional leadership teams; the rest kept them connected through a schoolwide representative like a literacy coach. All of them chose to work on reading comprehension, an important skill that can begin early by helping children from pre-K and up to ask questions, predict upcoming events and retell a story. A follow-up survey shows nearly all pre-K teachers were involved in schoolwide professional development, and “area” (subdistrict) leaders added targeted training on guided reading and reading comprehension activities for pre-K and kindergarten teachers.

The BPI work has led the area to look deeper into the question of how best to educate bilingual learners. In general, the Chicago Public Schools  system uses a three-year transitional bilingual education program, where children begin instruction mostly in their first language (here, Spanish), gradually tapering off until students have enough proficiency in English to make sense of an all-English classroom. At least, that’s how it’s supposed to work. In reality, too many of Chicago’s ELL’s are lost between Spanish (or another home language) and English. Growing numbers of Chicago schools are experimenting with dual-language instruction in an effort to maintain and increase home-language skills while ensuring a strong foundation in English, too. In Chula Vista, 10 schools offer dual-immersion to about 2,000 students.

TLC helped the 11 schools examine a variety of bilingual program models, including time for explicit development of English-language skills. The group created a committee to determine a comprehensive bilingual instruction model for the area and all schools have structured their day to include time for explicit English-language development.

I’m hoping some enterprising Chicago reporter will head out to one of these schools and show us what all this looks like on the ground. In the meantime, reporters who want to know what school change looks like in action might want to find out if TLC is working in their area.

Exploring the ‘Immigrant Paradox’: Q & A with Cynthia Garcia Coll

For more than a century, assimilation into American culture has been held up as a positive goal for immigrants to pursue. But a just-released book that highlights research on first-generation immigrant children and adolescents, including Latinos, shows that recent immigrant children are more likely to succeed in school and avoid risky behaviors than their more-assimilated peers. The title says it all: The Immigrant Paradox in Children and Adolescents: Is Becoming American a Developmental Risk?
I recently had the opportunity to chat via email with one of the co-authors, Cynthia Garcia Coll, who is the Robinson and Barstow Professor of Education, Psychology and Pediatrics at Brown University. Here’s what she had to say about the immigrant paradox and how it plays out among Latinos.

Your research shows that first-generation immigrant children often outperform succeeding generations academically despite the initial disadvantages they face due to poverty, low levels of parental education, and language and cultural differences. What explains this “immigrant paradox”?

Our research points to the presence of a heritage language in the home, Spanish, for example, as a protective factor for children of immigrants. In other words, children who live in household where Spanish is spoken do better than children who live in households where Spanish is not spoken. We are not certain how and why maintaining a heritage language at home serves as a protective factor, but it is clear that it does. We think that the maintenance of the home language by both children and adult family members gives the youth access to values and knowledge that protect them from influences that down play the importance of education and obeying the law. We are now proposing new research to unpackage the association between home language maintenance and more optimal developmental outcomes.

How does this paradox manifest itself among Latino immigrant communities? Are there any nuances that make the situation different for Latino versus Asian immigrants, for example?

There are very interesting similarities and differences between Latinos and Asian immigrants. In terms of behavioral outcomes, we find very similar patterns of results between Asian and Latino communities. In most outcome variables, more recent and less acculturated immigrants display less risky behaviors–delinquency, unprotected sex and substance use–than subsequent and more acculturated generations.

For academic outcomes, a very different pattern emerges. Both Asian and Latino populations, display the immigration paradox in academic attitudes: the more recent and less acculturated immigrants display more positive attitudes toward learning, schooling and teachers. The same pattern is found for Asian populations in terms of academic achievement–first generation and less acculturated individuals display more positive academic outcomes. However, this was not the case for Latinos. The positive attitudes displayed by first generation and less acculturated individuals do not translate into more positive academic outcomes for Latinos, and the question is why? We need to conduct more research to understand why positive academic attitudes do not translate to good academic outcomes for Latinos.

Your research notes the strength of family and emphasis on education present in immigrant families, yet statistics show Latino children are the least likely to attend preschool. Can you speak to this paradox from the experience of doing your research? How are Latino immigrant families managing the early care and education of their youngest children?

Latinos do emphasize the early education of their children, but not necessarily in terms of formal literacy or school readiness. They want their children to be well behaved and respectful. “Obediente, respetuoso y bien educado.” They also tend to use kin care more often than formal child care or preschool. Partly this is due to the traditional construction of childhood: We use the word  infantes/infants until 5 years of age. Jardin de Infantes refers to facilities for children up to five years of age. In this cultural construction of childhood, schooling is for six-year-olds and older.

My sense is that many Latino parents do not know the importance of early literacy and numeracy for later school achievement. If they did, enrollment in Head Start and other subsidized programs would increase dramatically. They also do not know how to ascertain the quality of center based programs and might choose home daycare for issues of familiarity and safety.

How can early educators and policymakers better capitalize on the strengths of first-generation children and families?

We should definitely capitalize in how immigrant families for the most part hold on to the American Dream. Hard work and obtaining high levels of formal education is seen by many of these families as their children’s  ticket out of poverty. They might not be able to read widely or help their children because of lack of language fluency or formal knowledge, but they will support their children in any other way they can.  Involving parents in their kids education as soon as possible, by having visiting hours, extracurricular activities, etc. is very important. Teaching families about  the connections between early literacy and numeracy and self-regulation to success in formal education is imperative. Similarly, teaching parents English or useful job skills that will lead to employment will support these families in the endeavor of raising healthy and educated adults.

What happens when those first-generation immigrants become parents themselves? What changes for their children? What aspects of assimilation appear to be most detrimental to their children’s educational success?

We know very little about how acculturation affects parenting. We know that subsequent generations lose the heritage language by the second or the third generation. This is accompanied by a lack of familiarity with the heritage culture and increasing adoption of American values, such as autonomy, distance from parents, and consumerism among others. We speculate that as parents and children move from believing in the American Dream, they get discouraged and their ambitions diminish. We know that immigrants do not invoke racism and discrimination much, even though by 4th grade children of immigrants perceive it in the school context.  Later generations see the injustices in the system from the perspective of being considered a minority, and thus it is harder for them to surmount these perceived obstacles and challenges.

Are there issues that arise in the early years (birth to age eight) that are clearly different for first-gen vs. later-gen immigrants and that show the effects of assimilation into U.S. culture?

Even if first generation children have more linguistic challenges at school entry, it has been found that they catch up by showing a more accelerated growth curve in school. Moreover, if they become bilingual, bilingualism has been shown to have many cognitive advantages and thus they stand a better chance to do well in cognitive tasks.

What lessons might assimilated U.S. parents and educators take from the first-generation families you studied?

Biculturalism might be an asset for all Americans. It is done by these vulnerable families, and thus it might be possible for it to be an advantage for all Americans. Learning a second language early is actually advantageous for kids. Grounding your family in a secondary, non-mainstream culture might be good for both education and reduction of risky behaviors.

Latino Preschoolers on the Rise in Central Illinois

Lots of headlines have already been written about  the new census data showing Latino population growth in Illinois. Many, like this Daily Herald piece, focus on the growth in Chicago’s suburbs and its possible political consequences. While much of the gain is concentrated in the suburbs of Chicago–and that also has brought changes to hundreds of school districts–Illinois schools beyond the metro area are also encountering Latino students, some for the first time.

Take, for example, the tiny Mahomet-Seymour District in the middle of the state, not too far from Champaign and the University of Illinois. Mahomet-Seymour serves about 3,000 students and includes one high school, one junior high and three elementary schools, one of which, Middletown Early Childhood Center, serves only children in pre-K and kindergarten. Last week I spoke with Principal Carol Shallenberger about her school’s recent experience with Latino preschoolers.

Shallenberger says it’s only been in the past few years that  Middletown has seen an influx of non-English speakers in its student body. Though Spanish is most frequently spoken, her school has had a few speakers of Russian, Polish and Tagalog as well. This year, Middletown has eight Spanish-speakers. “Most of them are coming in speaking just Spanish. Most of them are in a pre-K, at-risk program that meets for five half-days per week. Shallenberger says this year’s Latino preschoolers were placed in two of the three pre-K classrooms to ensure a critical mass of same-language peers. Their school day is “full-immersion English. We don’t have any staff who speak Spanish fluently,” she says, though some of the teachers have labeled classroom objects in both languages and everyone who works with Spanish-speaking children tries to use as much Spanish as possible.

Communicating with families, most of whom speak little English, has been challenging for these educators. A retired high school teacher has come in to help translate forms and act as a liaison with parents. A couple of children came from Champaign’s Head Start program, and their family advocates helped with the transition and its accompanying paperwork.

Middletown’s kindergarten is half-day for all students (this is not uncommon in Illinois due to funding issues). Shallenberger says this year they have one Latino student who attends both sessions to increase his exposure to English. Though the child has two different teachers, the content is similar and the full day offers a chance to hear the same ideas repeated in English twice.

Shallenberger says it’s too early to tell how well her youngsters are faring academically–they have yet to track graduates’ progress in the early elementary grades. As she sees it on the ground, “They’re interacting with all of the kids. All the kids are interacting with them. Socially, they’re adapting, learning those routines, taking on the language.”

When a child does need extra help, the teachers call in experts to assist. “We had to bring in a bilingual speech therapist to do an assessment on a child in both native language and English,” she recalls.

In the future, Shallenberger is looking to grow her own in-house capacity, especially given Illinois’ recent decision to require any school with more than 20 English-language learners who speak the same language to offer a transitional bilingual program in that language.  The new requirements go into effect in 2014, but it’s already on her radar screen. “We’re watching our numbers carefully,” to see whether Middletown’s rising numbers of ELLs will meet the threshold. “We are expecting to see our numbers grow.” Last summer Shallenberger tried to hire a new teacher with bilingual certification–though non of the candidates who applied had it, all said they were willing to earn the credential, so the new hire will pursue it.

A Snapshot of Early Social Skills for Latino Children

Back in May, Education Week reported on a University of California-Berkeley study showing that a majority of Latino children enter kindergarten with the same social skills as middle-class white children. Researchers found a strong correlation between the level of social skills children brought with them starting kindergarten and the gains they made in math skills during their kindergarten year.

I was thinking about this study Sunday afternoon when my friend–we’ll call him Luis, since he’s only five years old and might not want to find himself on the Internet later in life–and three of his older siblings came over to play in my backyard. Luis just started kindergarten in August. On paper, he’s entering with a potential drawback: He didn’t attend any preschool program, which research shows gives children who enter with less exposure to academics a stronger boost. I heard from one of his siblings that his mom didn’t want to send her last baby to school any sooner than she had to. (For the record, I never went to preschool. I was kind of a shy child so perhaps my mother didn’t want to send me any sooner than she had to, either.)

At the same time, Luis is a poster child for the study’s findings. He’s the youngest of six in his Mexican-immigrant family and has plenty of social skills. When we meet on the street, I’ve rarely see him without a smile on his face. On Sunday, he and my two-year-old son had a fine time kicking a ball around the yard. Based on Luis’ studied observation of the bugs in my composter, my guess is he’s also pretty good at staying on task, at least when he wants to. He even let my son look at his bugs with just a little prodding from his big sister.

I’ve rarely had a chance to watch Luis in more formal classroom-type activities, though we have occasionally read books together on my front porch steps. (I remember he liked the green frog in Oso Pardo Oso Pardo/Brown Bear Brown Bear when we read it a while back. I sent the book home with Luis but have no idea whether anyone reads it with him.) Yesterday he dug a few grubs out of the compost and put them in a plastic cup. I asked him to count them and he got as far as three, then stopped. I looked inside and there were more like five or six. I suspect if we had been speaking Spanish he might have gone farther, but I don’t know.

Though our neighborhood is poor, our local elementary school is rated above district averages for academic performance. I’m hopeful Luis will be able to take the social skills he brings to kindergarten and put them to work deepening his academics. Thanks to his older siblings, he also comes to kindergarten with a fairly strong command of English, a useful assist in a school district where the norm is transitional bilingual education–in general, three years of decreasing Spanish-language support before exiting.

I’d love to see reporting that puts this study in context. The Education Week article notes that Latino children of Mexican heritage were more likely to possess high social skills than Puerto Rican children, but it doesn’t directly explain why. I’d like to see the possible reasons for such differences explored in some stories. Based on my neighborhood, my guess is that factors like single parents versus two-parent families–especially two-parent families with a stay-at-home mom, like Luis’ family–play a big role. Here on my block, despite our troubles with foreclosures and gang activity, day-to-day life bears key resemblances to my own 1970s suburban upbringing, most notably because there are a fair number of stay-at-home moms among the Mexican families. They keep an eye on their children after school and network among themselves for everything from Tupperware sales to school recommendations. And most of their little children have a nurturing adult around consistently, which we know is crucial for young children’s social and intellectual development. (Yes, there are one or two obviously troubled families on our block, but as far as I can see most of the families seem to be raising their children with an appropriate mix of love and limits.)

I’d also like to see how kindergarteners like Luis fare in different schools to see how well the schools support young Latino kids and build on the assets they bring.

Shakira Named Obama Education Adviser

In case you missed the news last week,  President Barack Obama appointed Shakira to his Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics. Though of course she’s best known for her internationally acclaimed music, she’s also well-qualified for the education work. Through her foundation, she has a deep track record on education in Latin America, and her recent work has focused on early childhood education. Just last month she helped launch a training session for Brazilian city officials to improve hiring, training and community outreach in their preschool programs. That program will work with 25 municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State each year from 2011 through 2015.

“In the Shadows” with the Youngest Children

Monica beat me to it today with a post on the latest issue of the Harvard Educational Review, which focuses on how immigration status affects children. I’d also like to discuss this article, concentrating on the impact in the earliest years of these students’ lives.  This article makes a few important points about how undocumented status can exacerbate two issues that hinder cognitive development in young children: poverty and social capital.

Research on a cohort study of low-income families who were recruited to participate after they had a child born at one of New York City’s public hospitals showed disparities in cognitive development as early as two and three  years of age between the children of citizen/lawful immigrants and those of undocumented immigrants, even when other socioeconomic factors were accounted for.  The researchers traced the difference to greater economic hardship and fewer social supports for the undocumented parents, which resulted in longer work hours and less chance for children to access toys, books or center-based child care. These problems exist within many low-income families of all ethnicities and immigration statuses, but this research found they were especially concentrated among undocumented immigrants, many of whose children were U.S. citizens by birth.
The research is also a new book, Immigrants Raising Citizens, and New America Foundation’s Maggie Severns recently reviewed it for the Washington Monthly. The review gives useful background as to how the study evolved–at first, researcher Hirokazu Yoshikawa intended to study the survival strategies employed by immigrants of all statuses working low-wage jobs. But they observed immigration status was the factor that drove many families’ decision-making, and adjusted the research accordingly.

Severns notes some compelling comparisons, such as the contrast between two youngsters, one whose mother has immigration papers, the other without:

Three-year-old Lucio is the son of two undocumented Mexican immigrants. His mother, Alfreda, takes care of Lucio and some neighbors’ children during the day, and works the overnight shift at a Mexican restaurant in Brooklyn on the weekends. She is committed to her son’s learning, but she is often exhausted, sometimes even nodding off during job interviews. She also has little social support from friends or relatives.

Compare Lucio to Alberto, whose documented Dominican mother has a unionized (though still low-wage) job and a reliable social network. Alberto enjoys more toys, social interactions, and other stimulating experiences that enable his brain to grow. At the end of thirty-six months, his cognitive skills are three standard deviations above Lucio’s.

However, Severns says the book is long on anecdote and shorter on quantitative data. (Full disclosure: I have yet to read the book myself.) From the review, it appears to be a very localized ethnography. I already wonder if a similar study in Chicago would show different results. The review notes that while Dominicans in New York have an established neighborhood and social networks, Mexicans are scattered and less likely to access social capital. Here in Chicago, the situation is quite  different–there are large, well-known Mexican neighborhoods in the city and suburbs of all economic levels, and while there are few Dominicans and they are scattered, they are more likely to be well-educated and live in the suburbs.