XY-Zone Project Mentors Latino Male High School Students

Latino males are far less likely to graduate from high school and go on to college than their Latina counterparts. According to an analysis of 2011 Census survey data by Richard Fry of the Pew Hispanic Center, about 17 percent of Hispanic females ages 25 to 29 have at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with about 10 percent of Hispanic males.

One program trying to address this disparity is the XY-Zone Project, an effort of Communities in Schools of Central Texas. Half of the participants are Latino, and 41 percent are black. It serves 436 students in 10 Texas high schools.

Coordinators work with young men on 10 high school campuses in Texas who are at-risk of dropping out. The program’s core is focused on five key aspects: respect, responsibility, relationships, role modeling and reaching out.

The 2011-12 demographics of the young men in the program tell a rather consistent story: 98 percent have experienced some form of violence, 85 percent are economically disadvantaged, and 48 percent come from single-parent homes. In school, 16 percent are in special education and 15 percent are English language learners.

“The XY-Zone mission is to support and guide adolescent males as they journey into manhood,” said Robert Bachicha, the program’s Coordinator.

Bachicha said the outcomes for the young men in the program have been positive: 89 percent improved or maintained their grades, attendance or behavior and 97 percent stayed in school. The students perform volunteer work. Parents are also engaged through newsletters, phone calls and frequent home visits.

“Students who have participated are significantly more likely to believe ‘My life has purpose’ after completing the program,” Bachicha said.

XY-Zone mostly relies on family support and corporate foundation funding, with some federal money. He said the program was developed by looking at existing program models. They included service learning, Native American rites of passage, and the Fraternal Brotherhood model.

Bachicha spoke on Wednesday as part of a webinar focused on young men of color by the College Board’s Advocacy Arm. The board has a Young Men of Color Initiative. According to the College Board, in 2008, about 33.4 percent of Hispanic male high school graduates aged 15 to 24 were enrolled in postsecondary education.

Related links:


– “The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color” College Board Advocacy & Policy Center. 

– “XY-Zone: Preparing Boys to Become Men.” 

– Project MALES. The University of Texas at Austin.

Report Outlines Education Agenda for Latino Students in Illinois

Nearly one in four Illinois public school students is Latino. And their story is no longer confined to the Chicago Public Schools, where Hispanics are 43 percent of the enrollment. Most of the  state’s Latino student population is now in the suburbs and rural areas.

new report by the Latino Policy Forum lays out the challenges facing the population. Only one in three Latinos are enrolled in preschool. By the time they reach the third grade, these Latino students lag white students by 31 percentage points in reading scores.  English Language Learners, 86 percent of whom speak Spanish, lag 48 points in reading by third grade.

“Such statistics are alarming, and these trends left unchecked will have devastating implications for Illinois: ensuring positive outcomes for their community is no longer simply a Latino issue,” the Shaping Our Future report says. “The well-being of Latinos–whose population has increased by nearly 500,000 over the last decade–is inextricably linked to the well-being of all of Illinois?”

So, what can be done?

The report identifies areas of interest and specific action items to be taken on:

Raising Academic and Instructional Standards:

The report suggests providing linguistically appropriate tests for students, such as increasing students’ time to take tests and allowing students to respond in Spanish. In addition, it advises that students complete college prep coursework and be provided programs such as dual-language instruction.

Preparing Teachers and Academic Leadership:

The Forum urges racial diversity among the teacher and administrator workforce. It urges that bilingual and mainstream teachers have proper training to deal with the diverse student population. In addition, it seeks to promote Latino students’ access to highly qualified teachers.

Addressing Funding and Facility Concerns.

The state’s heavy dependency on property taxes to fund schools has perpetuated continued unequal funding districts, with high-minority districts receiving about $1,595 less per student than low-minority districts. The Forum promotes advocating for increased funding and new strategies for distributing funds. In addition, it suggests building schools to be able to prevent overcrowding and increasing students’ access to technology.

Fostering Partners in Education.

The organization has planned the Acuerdo group geared at bringing Latino organizations and leaders together to advocate for the community’s needs and push initiatives forward.

Partners with schools, classrooms and school districts can include community-based organizations, foundations, businesses, faith-based organizations, health organizations and families. They can provide resources for issues such as funding support and providing support such as gang prevention programs.

The report also stresses the importance of family involvement initiatives, such as sharing with parents school information such as the benefits of preschool. Schools can also be educated themselves about how to go back to school and learn English. In addition, the report points out that suburbs often have fewer community organizations that provide services than Chicago, and are in need of more partners.


The Latino Policy Forum also hosted a discussion today along with leaders from the National Council of La Raza, Chicago Public Schools and Illinois State Board of Education in conjunction with the report’s release. WestEd’s Aida Walqui, an expert on ELLs, also spoke about the common core standards.

Related Links:

– “Shaping Our Future: Building a Collective Latino K-12 Education Agenda.” Latino Policy Forum. 

– Education Acuerdo

Latino Policy Forum

Univision Educates Parents in Spanish About Common Core Standards

A new special report on Univision’s Web site explains to Latino parents in Spanish the significance of the “estándares comunes,” known to English speakers as the Common Core Standards.

In the report, “Ya viene: Elevando los estándares educativos,” or “It’s coming: Elevating the educational standards,” journalist  María Antonieta Collins interviewed Aída Walqui, director of the teacher professional development program with WestEd and an expert on English language learners. The report explains how states are working together to create shared math and English standards.

“Every state has its own standards that signify a good education,” Collins says in the report’s opening (I’m translating this loosely from Spanish to English). “This lack of uniformity in education standards has affected the position of the United States in comparison with other countries and the capacity to compete in the global market.”

Walqui participated in a discussion about the standards with Collins that Univision broke into five parts on its Web site. “What the standards don’t do is say how to teach the standards in the classroom,” Walqui said. “It gives freedom to the schools, school districts and states to use different but parallel ways of teaching the standards. The destination is still the same.”

She said that the majority of ELLs in U.S. schools today–82 percent of ELL primary students and 58 percent of ELL secondary students–are born in the United States. She called it a “crime” that some students arrive in high school still not proficient in English after attending American schools since kindergarten.

“These children speak perfect English in the street and speak perfect English with their friends,” Walqui said. “But when they try to read complex texts, they don’t understand them.”

That’s why the standards for ELLs are being revised, she added. Walqui is part of the “Understanding Language” initiative at Stanford University, which aims to inform educators about the important role of language in the new Common Core Standards. The group has released several papers regarding the standards and how they apply to ELLs.

Thanks to Education Week’s Learning the Language blog for calling this to my attention.

Related Links:

– Understanding Language initiative. Stanford University.

– Common Core State Standards Initiative.

– “Estándares educativos Parte 1: ¿Qué son estándares comunes?” (What are the common core standards?) Univision.

– “Estándares educativos Parte 2 ¿Por qué hay que cambiarlos?” (Why the change?) Univision. 

– “Estándares educativos Parte 3 ¿Qué cambios notará en la educación de sus hijos?” (What changes will you notice in your children’s education?) Univision.

– “Estándares educativos Parte 4: Los estudiantes de inglés como segundo idioma.”  (Students learning English as a second language) Univision.

– “Estándares educativos Parte 5: El rol de los padres.” (The role of parents) Univision. 

Latinas Face Special Challenges on Path to College

Young Latinas constantly hear the message in school that earning a college degree is important. Then why do so many believe that it’s not an attainable goal for themselves? I delved into this issue in an article for Education Week‘s recent “Diplomas Count” report.

There can never be one answer to such a complex problem, though economic and cultural factors certainly play a role. A 2009 study by the National Women’s Law Center and the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund outlined some of the biggest issues.

The “Listening to Latinas” study found that many Hispanic girls assume caregiver roles in their extended families–either for other children or elderly relatives–and that can make it more challenging for them to reach their educational goals. Loyalty to supporting the family can affect the decisions they make when deciding the direction of their own lives.

For my EdWeek story, I spoke with Celina Cardenas, a community relations coordinator in the Richardson Independent School District outside of Dallas. She mentors Hispanic girls who are wrestling with what to do after high school. She mentioned that girls may be reluctant to move out of their parents’ home to attend college in another city.

“It’s kind of like you’re born with responsibility—especially the girls,” she said. “Doing something on your own may not sit very comfortably with them because they may not want to let anyone down. I talk to them a lot about not feeling selfish that they’re disappointing their family by going away, and understanding there’s nothing wrong with having those goals.”

The MALDEF study also highlighted that Hispanic girls as a group also are more likely to struggle with poverty, depression and high teen pregnancy rates.

Statistics show that while Latinas are faring better than Latino males, they are not doing as well as black or white women in college attainment. According to an analysis by Richard Fry of the Pew Hispanic Center of 2011 Census survey data, about 17 percent of Hispanic women ages 25 to 29 have at least a bachelor’s degrees, compared with about 10 percent of Hispanic males, 43 percent of white females and 23 percent of black females in that age bracket.

Search for the local community groups in your region that are trying to help girls in your area. For the Education Week story, I followed  the Dallas chapter of the national non-profit group Girls Inc. as they led a large group of girls on daily college tours over spring break. I also visited the Alley’s House organization in Dallas, which empowers teen mothers by helping them get an education. And the nonprofit Texas-based  online magazine Latinitas gives Hispanic girls a venue to write and have their voices heard.

Related Links:

– “Hispanic Girls face Special Barriers on Road to College.” Education Week. 

– “Listening to Latinas: Barriers to High School Graduation.”

– “Diplomas Count.”

Children of Immigrant Parents More Likely to Fall Behind in School Early

Children with immigrant parents are much more likely to live in poverty, lack health insurance and drop out of high school than children of U.S.-born parents, a recent study concluded.

The children face these challenges even though their parents’ employment rates are similar to those of American parents and they actually are more likely to live in two-parent homes.

The Foundation for Child Development in New York examined the gaps between the groups in a recent policy brief.

The children’s academic performance was also affected by their status as English language learners. According to the study, only about 7 percent of ELL students were proficient in reading in English by the end of third grade, compared with 37 percent of children who spoke English as a first language.

In addition, about 14 percent of ELLs were proficient in mathematics by the end of third grade, compared with 44 percent of children who spoke English as a first language.

“This is the canary in the coal mine for dropping out,” Richard Fry of the Pew Hispanic Center told the Wall Street Journal.

Children of immigrants from Mexico and Central America tend to fair the worst in education measures. Many of those parents don’t have an education beyond elementary school, and are unable to help their children with school work. Those parents also don’t know how to navigate the American school system.

The Journal spoke with Karen Arroyo, 14, a student at the Aspiring Centennial College Preparatory Academy in Los Angeles, about how her parents encouraged her to get a good education. “[R]ight now, my parents don’t know much about what I am doing because they didn’t go to high school,” she told the newspaper.

“Studies have found that those who are unable to read by the fourth grade are unlikely to ever catch up, and are  four times more likely to drop out of school,” the report’s author, Daniel Hernandez, said in a press release. “These data show us that our education system is failing nine out of ten Dual Language Learner students in the U.S., and even a substantial majority of children whose first language is English.”

The organization makes a number of policy recommendations, including the suggestion that the government must make greater investments in Pre-K programs, provide adequate funding for ELLs and expand programs that seek to improve the job skills of immigrant parents.

The other numbers in the report are broken down here:

–  30 percent of the children of immigrants live below the federal poverty level, compared with 19 percent of those born to non-immigrant parents

– 25 percent of the children of immigrant parents don’t graduate high school, compared with 18 percent of those born to non-immigrant parents

– 15 percent of children in immigrant families lack health insurance, compared with 8 percent of those of American-born parents

Related Links:

– “Children in Immigrant Families: Essential to America’s Future.” Foundation for Child Development.

– “Immigrant Children Lag Behind, Posing Risk.” Wall Street Journal.

– “American Children born to Immigrant parents trailing behind, new study finds.” New American Media. 

School Mariachi Programs Engage and Inspire Latino Students

At Zapata High School in south Texas, competition is fierce to earn one of 24 spots on the two-time state-champion varsity mariachi ensemble.

The upcoming PBS documentary “Mariachi High,” airing on June 29 at 9 p.m. ET (also check local listings), tells the story of the award-winning musical group and shows students going through the audition process and then competing. Zapata High School’s enrollment is about 99 percent Latino and 76 percent economically disadvantaged.

In response to the growing popularity of such programs, in 2008 Texas added a varsity mariachi competition category to its statewide  University Interscholastic League music competitions. Ensembles must include violins, trumpets, armonia (such as vihuela ,guitarrón and guitar) and vocals.

The Huffington Post spoke with Mariachi Halcon band leader Adrian Padilla about the students, all of whom from the most recent team have gone on to college. He recalled how one student decided to study music in college. “When I heard that I was just like, wow,” Padilla told the Post. “I remember when (this student) first came to me and said he’d felt neglected and left behind. I told him that I guarantee by the time you’re a senior, you’re going to be top dog.”

The program has also spurred parent involvement in preparation for the competitions. Teen-ager Eloy Martinez first fell in love with the music when he heard the band playing six years ago, as a fifth-grader.

“The first day I just sat there watching, listening,” he said in The Huffington Post. “I didn’t play any instrument and I thought, I don’t know what it is, but I like it.”

Texas isn’t the only state that encourages such programs. They are popping up in hundreds of schools all over the country, from Las Vegas to towns in rural Iowa. Many educators hope that getting more minority and low-income students involved in arts education will push them forward toward higher education.

““At a time when Latinos have the highest dropout rate in the country and when arts education continues to be under attack, we found a story of teens who pursue excellence through their cultural heritage despite some very real challenges,” Ilana Trachtman, the show’s producer and director, said in a PBS press release. “This is an exuberant story about ambitious and talented Mexican-American teenagers — whom you hardly ever see on screen.”

You can localize this story by checking to see if your local schools are offering similar programs. School systems with thriving programs include the Clark County School District in Las Vegas, Pasco School District in eastern Washington, and the Garland Independent School District outside of Dallas. The University of North Texas also offers a summer mariachi camp for middle and high school students.

Related Links:

– “High School Mariachi Band Inspires Documentary, enlivens community in Zapata, Texas.” The Huffington Post.

-“Mariachi High” Facebook Page. 

– Mariachi USA Foundation

– “Mariachi has changed my life’: Mexican music grabs US students.” msnbc.com. 

– “Mariachi band growing roots in Denison middle school.”  The Globe Gazette (Iowa). 

President Obama Marks Plyler v. Doe Anniversary with Key Immigration Announcement

President Obama’s announcement today that the United States will stop deporting certain young illegal immigrants  brought into the country as children comes on a significant date in history absent from many textbooks and unknown to many Americans.

Perhaps not even the young people affected by the administration’s policy change know about it. And the president did not mention it in his speech. The historic Plyler v. Doe Supreme Court decision, which affirmed undocumented immigrant children’s right to a free public education, marks its 30th anniversary today.

Obama’s decree stops short of the DREAM Act, and is just a temporary measure. To qualify, young people must be 30 or younger, must have been in the U.S. at least five years and must have arrived before they were 16. They must be currently in school, have graduated from high school or earned a GED, or served in the military. They also cannot have a criminal record.

It defers deportation for two years and allows them to get work visas, but does not provide a path to citizenship. The Pew Hispanic Center estimates that up to 1.4 million people could benefit from the policy.

“This is the right thing to do,” the president said.

But how did the United States come to be in this position?  There are so many thousands of young people affected because of the still-controversial Plyler decision.

The narrowly decided 5-4 decision made on June 15, 1982,  arose from a  civil rights lawsuit filed in Tyler, Texas. It doesn’t carry the broad name recognition of Brown v. Board of Education. And yet, it is a decision that affects more children today than at the time it was decided.

I was working for The Dallas Morning News when I traveled to Tyler on the case’s 25th anniversary to meet with some of those who were involved in the case. While there, I recorded a series of video interviews and eventually wrote an article about the case.

In 1975, Texas began allowing districts to charge tuition to undocumented immigrant children or to bar them from school.  In 1977, a number of poor Mexican families attempted to enroll their children in Tyler schools. Because they were undocumented immigrants, they were told they would need to pay $1,000 per child, which they could not afford to pay.

Catholic lay worker  Michael McAndrew noticed they were out of school and brought the case to the attention of a local attorney and then the  Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Four families filed suit against the school district and Jim Plyler, the schools superintendent. Texas U.S. District Judge William Wayne Justice ruled in favor of the families, and the case went on to the Supreme Court.

In 2007, I visited the humble home of Jose and Lidia Lopez,  one of the couples who challenged the Tyler school district in court. Their children later went on to graduate high school and remain in Tyler, where they are raising their own children.

“School is very important for all children, and they should not be discriminated against because they are Mexican or white or black,” Mr. Lopez said. “They should be equal.”

When I visited Jim Plyler, he said he had changed his mind and supported the decision.

Texas U.S. District Court Judge William Wayne Justice–who decided the case in favor of the children before it was sent to the higher court–told me that it was the most important decision of his lengthy career. Judge Justice has since passed away, but felt confident of his decision until his death at 89.

“I don’t know how many [children] got an education as a result of it, I can speculate it might have been more than a million,” Judge Justice told me. “Without that education they would have been a burden on the rest of us….When Texas educates these children, whether Mexican-American children or children of illegal immigrants we’re giving ourselves a break financially.”

In the Supreme Court’s majority opinion Justice William Brennan, a son of Irish immigrants, wrote: “It is difficult to understand precisely what the State hopes to achieve by promoting the creation and perpetuation of a subclass of illiterates within our boundaries, surely adding to the problems and costs of unemployment, welfare and crime.”

Related Links:

– “U.S. to stop deporting some illegal immigrants.” The New York Times. 

– “Secretary Napolitano Announces Deferred Action Process for Young People who are low enforcement Priorities.” Department of Homeland Security.

– Plyler v. Doe: 25 Years Later.” Video interviews with case participants. 

– “25 years ago, Tyler case opened schools to illegal immigrants.” The Dallas Morning News. 

– “Triumphs and Challenges on the 30th Anniversary of Plyler V. Doe.” Center for American Progress. 

– “School is for Everyone: Celebrating Plyler v. Doe. (ACLU) ” The Huffington Post.

– “Supreme Court Immigration Ruling Resonates 30 Years Later.” The School Law Blog. Education Week.

Three Programs That are Promoting STEM Education Among Latinos

There’s lots of talk about the urgent need to improve Latino students’ math and science performance . But what programs exist that help Latino students pursue the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics?

“We’re really focusing on the Hispanic community because of the education statistics we see for our students and where we will be as a nation if we don’t address these students.” said Rudy Reyna, executive director of the Pre-Freshman Engineering Program based in San Antonio. “These students are such a critical resource for the future of the nation.”

Here are a few programs that I learned about during a presentation by the Hispanic STEM Initiative at the College Board’s recent “Preparate” conference. The initiative’s members might be good resources for reporters looking to write about this topic.

♦ Parent Institute for Quality Education: The PIQE organization recently piloted a STEM awareness class for parents in Stockton, Calif. About 75 percent of parents participating in PIQE programs are Spanish-speaking. During the classes, parents were made aware of and encouraged to get their children involved with STEM-related school clubs and math competitions.

“They get to hear what their children would be earning if they went into these fields,” said
David Valladolid, president and CEO of PIQE. “They’re learning the preparation. Parents leave the classes with a full list of classes their children need to take.”

♦  PREP-USA (University of Texas at San Antonio): Middle and high school students take part in a seven-week summer learning Pre-Freshman Engineering Program on college campuses, where they can earn elective high school credits. Courses include problem solving, technical writing, water science and computer science. The program also takes place in other areas of the state, including Dallas, Houston and Laredo.

♦ MESA (Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement): This California program works on preparing a pipeline of STEM students beginning in middle school and carrying through college. About 60 percent of the student participants are Latino, said executive director Oscar Porter. The schools program is dedicated to year-round support for middle school and high school students.

The community college program focuses on supporting students at the college level, improving their skills in calculus-based majors and encouraging them to transfer to universities. Finally, the engineering program works on students at four-year institutions. MESA leaders say that the high school participants have a college-going rate of 70 percent, much higher than the state average.

Related Links:

Parent Institute for Quality Education (PIQE)

Prefreshman Engineering Program (PREP)

Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement (MESA) 

Last-Minute Reprieve Saves Virginia High School Graduate from Deportation

Heydi Mejia, 18, is a good student who also happens to be an undocumented immigrant from Guatemala. She graduated from Meadowbrook High School in Virginia on Friday, just days before she was scheduled for deportation.

Similar stories have made headlines recently, and public outpourings of support led to some of those students being able to stay in the United States. But was Mejia’s story “good enough” in the eyes of politicians  and the public to earn a reprieve?

“What happens when you’re ranked No. 22 at a suburban high school outside Richmond, where politicians haven’t responded to your calls and school officials aren’t sure whether to spell your name Heydi or Heidi?” The Washington Post asked in a story on Monday.

Mejia was a member of the National Honor Society, and her teachers and principals wrote letters of support for her to submit to immigration officials. She also submitted SAT scores and school transcripts. But she was still rejected by the Department of Homeland Security before she graduated and ordered deported. “For me, this week feels more like a dead end,” Mejia said about commencement activities.

But once the story was published on the front page of the Post on Monday, she got the answer she wanted from immigration officials that same day. The Department of Homeland Security granted her a one-year reprieve. She  now plans to enroll in college.

“It has been an overwhelming week, for sure,” she told the Post. “I’ve had every emotion, and now I just feel so relieved and so lucky.”

Undocumented immigrant students graduating near or at the top of their high school classes make for the most dramatic stories, and seem to have the best chance of winning public support. Media coverage also seems to play a major role, as evidenced by the decision about Heydi coming the same day that the story was published by one of the nation’s most influential newspapers.

Another example is Daniela Pelaez, who just graduated as valedictorian of North Miami Senior High School and is headed to Dartmouth College. Public and political support, coupled with media coverage, earned her a reprieve. But what about all those students who are not lucky enough to be featured in major media coverage? Or those who may just be “B” or “C” students who still plan on going to college, albeit community college, the higher education pathway that most young Latinos choose?

It’s important to reflect on the fact that there are many kids facing this situation across the country, and the impact of media makes a difference for just a few. That’s despite the fact that President Obama told officials last year to be more lenient on such students and evaluate them on a case-by-case basis.

Education Week recently reported that the Latino high school graduation rate stood at just 63 percent in 2009. Schools are battling to create success stories for Hispanic students, only to watch some of them shipped away.

Passage of the Dream Act–which would provide a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrant students who pursue a college degree–could lead to more students graduating high school with stories like Heidi’s. How many of their stories go untold? See if you can find one in the school district you cover, and especially consider writing about that student who may not be valedictorian on salutatorian, but is still a good kid.

Related Links:

– “Virginia teen Heydi Mejia is granted reprieve from deportation.” The Washington Post.

– “Virginia student graduates from high school, braces for deportation.” The Washington Post.

– “Valedictorian with immigration woes wins cheers with her diploma.” CBS Miami. 

– “Elizabeth Olivas returns to Indiana for graduation after weeks stuck in Mexico.” Indianapolis Star.

High School Graduation Rate for Latinos Is Improving, Report Says

The Latino high school graduation rate  increased by 5.5 percentage points between 2008 and 2009 –to 63 percent for the Class of 2009–according to a new analysis by the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. The figures were unveiled this week in Education Week’s annual “Diplomas Count” report, which focuses on Latino students this year.

The publication pegged the overall national graduation rate at 73.4 percent in 2009, an increase for the second year in a row. Researchers attributed the rise in part to “impressive gains” made by Hispanics. But Latinos still fall significantly behind the national average.

If you scroll to the bottom of this link, you can see how Latinos are faring from state to state on graduation rates. Some notable states for Latino graduation rates include Texas (64.4 percent), California (63 percent), Florida (72.6 percent), Arizona (64 percent), Illinois (61.5 percent), New Mexico (62.3 percent) and New York (57.9 percent).

The research center also identified 38 majority-Hispanic school districts that are performing particularly well with Latino students, and ranked the Lompoc Unified School District in Southern California at the top of the list.

EPE also noted that about 37 percent of the Latinos not graduating in the class of 2012 are projected to come from just 25 school districts. It dubs them “dropout epicenters,” and pegs the Los Angeles school system as the system losing the most Latino students.

The group calculates its rates using the Cumulative Promotion Index, which takes into account students’ movement through the grades beginning as high school freshmen.

The report also mentions efforts by New Jersey to improve pre-K access of 3- and 4-year-olds. I contributed a story about the particular challenges Latinas face.

The Miami-Dade school system is highlighted as being particularly successful with Latino students. Education Week is hosting a webinar with Miami-Dade administrators who oversee bilingual education services on Tuesday, June 12 at 2 p.m. ET.

Related Links:

“Diplomas Count 2012.”